Mary Seacole, née Mary Jane Grant, (born 1805, Kingston, Jamaica—died May 14, 1881, London, England), Jamaican businesswoman who provided sustenance and care for British soldiers at the battlefront during the Crimean War.
Her father was a Scottish soldier, and her mother was a free black Jamaican woman and “doctress” skilled in traditional medicine who provided care for invalids at her boardinghouse. In 1836 Mary Grant married Edwin Horatio Seacole, and during their trips to the Bahamas, Haiti, and Cuba she augmented her knowledge of local medicines and treatments. After her husband’s death in 1844, she gained further nursing experience during a cholera epidemic in Panama, and, after returning to Jamaica, she cared for yellow fever victims, many of whom were British soldiers.
Seacole was in London in 1854 when reports of the lack of necessities and breakdown of nursing care for soldiers in the Crimean War began to be made public. Despite her experience, her offers to serve as an army nurse were refused, and she attributed her rejection to racial prejudice. In 1855, with the help of a relative of her husband, she went to Crimea as a sutler, setting up the British Hotel to sell food, supplies, and medicines to the troops. She assisted the wounded at the military hospitals and was a familiar figure at the transfer points for casualties from the front. At the war’s end she returned to England destitute and was declared bankrupt.
In 1857 her autobiography, Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands, was published and became a best seller. A festival was held in her honour to raise funds and acknowledge her contributions, and she received decorations from France, England, and Turkey. After her death she fell into obscurity but in 2004 took first place in the 100 Great Black Britons poll in the United Kingdom.