Exposure to multiple synthetic chemicals is a permanent feature of modern life. Many of these chemicals are suspected to disrupt endocrine systems of humans and animals. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act at very low concentrations and non-linearly, defying mainstream single-substance chemical regulation. Here we provide an analysis of findings from the first phase of the […]
Drug resistance mediated by clonal evolution is arguably the biggest problem in cancer therapy today. However, evolving resistance to one drug may come at a cost of decreased fecundity or increased sensitivity to another drug. These evolutionary trade-offs can be exploited using ‘evolutionary steering’ to control the tumour population and delay resistance. However, recapitulating cancer […]
04/2020 - Single-cell transcriptomics identifies an effectorness gradient shaping the response of CD4+ T cells to cytokines
Naïve CD4+ T cells coordinate the immune response by acquiring an effector phenotype in response to cytokines. However, the cytokine responses in memory T cells remain largely understudied. Here we use quantitative proteomics, bulk RNA-seq, and single-cell RNA-seq of over 40,000 human naïve and memory CD4+ T cells to show that responses to cytokines differ substantially between […]
Studies on the early 2000s documented increasing attrition rates and duration of clinical trials, leading to a representation of a “productivity crisis” in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). In this paper, we produce a new set of analyses for the last decade and report a recent increase of R&D productivity within the industry.