Axonemal radial spokes: 3D structure, function and assembly
The radial spoke (RS) is a complex of at least 23 proteins that works as a mechanochemical transducer between the central‐pair apparatus and the peripheral microtubule doublets in eukaryotic flagella and motile cilia. The RS contributes to the regulation of the activity of dynein motors, and thus to flagellar motility. Despite numerous biochemical, physiological and structural studies, the mechanism of the function of the radial spoke remains unclear. Detailed knowledge of the 3D structure of the RS protein complex is needed in order to understand how RS regulates dynein activity. Here we review the most important findings on the structure of the RS, including results of our recent cryo‐electron tomographic analysis of the RS protein complex.