Effect of ibuprofen and warfarin on the allosteric properties of haem-human serum albumin. A spectroscopic study
Haem binding to human serum albumin (HSA) endows the protein with peculiar spectroscopic properties. Here, the effect of ibuprofen and warfarin on the spectroscopic properties of ferric haem-human serum albumin (ferric HSA-haem) and of ferrous nitrosylated haem-human serum albumin (ferrous HSA-haem-NO) is reported. Ferric HSA-haem is hexa-coordinated, the haem-iron atom being bonded to His105 and Tyr148. Upon drug binding to the warfarin primary site, the displacement of water molecules–buried in close proximity to the haem binding pocket–induces perturbation of the electronic absorbance properties of the chromophore without affecting the coordination number or the spin state of the haem-iron, and the quenching of the 1H-NMR relaxivity. Values of Kd for ibuprofen and warfarin binding to the warfarin primary site of ferric HSA-haem, corresponding to the ibuprofen secondary cleft, are 5.4 +/- 1.1 x 10(-4) m and 2.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(-5) m, respectively. The affinity of ibuprofen and warfarin for the warfarin primary cleft of ferric HSA-haem is lower than that reported for drug binding to haem-free HSA. Accordingly, the Kd value for haem binding to HSA increases from 1.3 +/- 0.2 x 10(-8) m in the absence of drugs to 1.5 +/- 0.2 x 10(-7) m in the presence of ibuprofen and warfarin. Ferrous HSA-haem-NO is a five-coordinated haem-iron system. Drug binding to the warfarin primary site of ferrous HSA-haem-NO induces the transition towards the six-coordinated haem-iron species, the haem-iron atom being bonded to His105. Remarkably, the ibuprofen primary cleft appears to be functionally and spectroscopically uncoupled from the haem site of HSA. Present results represent a clear-cut evidence for the drug-induced shift of allosteric equilibrium(a) of HSA.